File::Basename - Parse file paths into directory, filename and suffix.
- use File::Basename;
- ($name,$path,$suffix) = fileparse($fullname,@suffixlist);
- $name = fileparse($fullname,@suffixlist);
- $basename = basename($fullname,@suffixlist);
- $dirname = dirname($fullname);
These routines allow you to parse file paths into their directory, filename and suffix.
emulate the behaviours, and
quirks, of the shell and C functions of the same name. See each
function's documentation for details. If your concern is just parsing
paths it is safer to use File::Spec's
It is guaranteed that
- # Where $path_separator is / for Unix, \ for Windows, etc...
- dirname($path) . $path_separator . basename($path);
is equivalent to the original path for all systems but VMS.
routine divides a file path into its $directories, $filename
and (optionally) the filename $suffix.
$directories contains everything up to and including the last directory separator in the $path including the volume (if applicable). The remainder of the $path is the $filename.
- # On Unix returns ("baz", "/foo/bar/", "")
- # On Windows returns ("baz", 'C:\foo\bar\', "")
- # On Unix returns ("", "/foo/bar/baz/", "")
If @suffixes are given each element is a pattern (either a string or a
qr//) matched against the end of the $filename. The matching
portion is removed and becomes the $suffix.
- # On Unix returns ("baz", "/foo/bar/", ".txt")
- fileparse("/foo/bar/baz.txt", qr/\.[^.]*/);
If type is non-Unix (see fileparse_set_fstype) then the pattern matching for suffix removal is performed case-insensitively, since those systems are not case-sensitive when opening existing files.
You are guaranteed that
$directories . $filename . $suffix
denote the same location as the original $path.
This function is provided for compatibility with the Unix shell command
. It does NOT always return the file name portion of a
path as you might expect. To be safe, if you want the file name portion of
a path use
returns the last level of a filepath even if the last
level is clearly directory. In effect, it is acting like
paths. This differs from
- # Both return "bar"
@suffixes work as in
except all regex metacharacters are
Also note that in order to be compatible with the shell command,
does not strip off a suffix if it is identical to the
remaining characters in the filename.
This function is provided for compatibility with the Unix shell
and has inherited some of its quirks. In spite of
its name it does NOT always return the directory name as you might
expect. To be safe, if you want the directory name of a path use
Only on VMS (where there is no ambiguity between the file and directory
portions of a path) and AmigaOS (possibly due to an implementation quirk in
this module) does
, returning just the
- # On VMS and AmigaOS
- my $directories = dirname($path);
When using Unix or MSDOS syntax this emulates the
which is subtly different from how
works. It returns all but
the last level of a file path even if the last level is clearly a directory.
In effect, it is not returning the directory portion but simply the path one
level up acting like
chop() for file paths.
does not include a trailing slash on
its returned path.
- # returns /foo/bar. fileparse() would return /foo/bar/
- # also returns /foo/bar despite the fact that baz is clearly a
- # directory. fileparse() would return /foo/bar/baz/
- # returns '.'. fileparse() would return 'foo/'
Under VMS, if there is no directory information in the $path, then the current default device and directory is used.
Normally File::Basename will assume a file path type native to your current operating system (ie. /foo/bar style on Unix, \foo\bar on Windows, etc...). With this function you can override that assumption.
Valid $types are "MacOS", "VMS", "AmigaOS", "OS2", "RISCOS", "MSWin32", "DOS" (also "MSDOS" for backwards bug compatibility), "Epoc" and "Unix" (all case-insensitive). If an unrecognized $type is given "Unix" will be assumed.
If you've selected VMS syntax, and the file specification you pass to one of these routines contains a "/", they assume you are using Unix emulation and apply the Unix syntax rules instead, for that function call only.
dirname(1), basename(1), File::Spec