bigint - Transparent BigInteger support for Perl
- use bigint;
- $x = 2 + 4.5,"\n"; # BigInt 6
- print 2 ** 512,"\n"; # really is what you think it is
- print inf + 42,"\n"; # inf
- print NaN * 7,"\n"; # NaN
- print hex("0x1234567890123490"),"\n"; # Perl v5.10.0 or later
- {
- no bigint;
- print 2 ** 256,"\n"; # a normal Perl scalar now
- }
- # Import into current package:
- use bigint qw/hex oct/;
- print hex("0x1234567890123490"),"\n";
- print oct("01234567890123490"),"\n";
All operators (including basic math operations) except the range operator ..
are overloaded. Integer constants are created as proper BigInts.
Floating point constants are truncated to integer. All parts and results of expressions are also truncated.
Unlike integer, this pragma creates integer constants that are only limited in their size by the available memory and CPU time.
There is one small difference between use integer
and use bigint
: the
former will not affect assignments to variables and the return value of
some functions. bigint
truncates these results to integer too:
- # perl -Minteger -wle 'print 3.2'
- 3.2
- # perl -Minteger -wle 'print 3.2 + 0'
- 3
- # perl -Mbigint -wle 'print 3.2'
- 3
- # perl -Mbigint -wle 'print 3.2 + 0'
- 3
- # perl -Mbigint -wle 'print exp(1) + 0'
- 2
- # perl -Mbigint -wle 'print exp(1)'
- 2
- # perl -Minteger -wle 'print exp(1)'
- 2.71828182845905
- # perl -Minteger -wle 'print exp(1) + 0'
- 2
In practice this makes seldom a difference as parts and results of expressions will be truncated anyway, but this can, for instance, affect the return value of subroutines:
bigint recognizes some options that can be passed while loading it via use. The options can (currently) be either a single letter form, or the long form. The following options exist:
This sets the accuracy for all math operations. The argument must be greater than or equal to zero. See Math::BigInt's bround() function for details.
- perl -Mbigint=a,2 -le 'print 12345+1'
Note that setting precision and accuracy at the same time is not possible.
This sets the precision for all math operations. The argument can be any integer. Negative values mean a fixed number of digits after the dot, and are <B>ignored</B> since all operations happen in integer space. A positive value rounds to this digit left from the dot. 0 or 1 mean round to integer and are ignore like negative values.
See Math::BigInt's bfround() function for details.
- perl -Mbignum=p,5 -le 'print 123456789+123'
Note that setting precision and accuracy at the same time is not possible.
This enables a trace mode and is primarily for debugging bigint or Math::BigInt.
Override the built-in hex() method with a version that can handle big integers. This overrides it by exporting it to the current package. Under Perl v5.10.0 and higher, this is not so necessary, as hex() is lexically overridden in the current scope whenever the bigint pragma is active.
Override the built-in oct() method with a version that can handle big integers. This overrides it by exporting it to the current package. Under Perl v5.10.0 and higher, this is not so necessary, as oct() is lexically overridden in the current scope whenever the bigint pragma is active.
Load a different math lib, see Math Library.
- perl -Mbigint=lib,GMP -e 'print 2 ** 512'
- perl -Mbigint=try,GMP -e 'print 2 ** 512'
- perl -Mbigint=only,GMP -e 'print 2 ** 512'
Currently there is no way to specify more than one library on the command line. This means the following does not work:
- perl -Mbignum=l,GMP,Pari -e 'print 2 ** 512'
This will be hopefully fixed soon ;)
This prints out the name and version of all modules used and then exits.
- perl -Mbigint=v
Math with the numbers is done (by default) by a module called Math::BigInt::Calc. This is equivalent to saying:
- use bigint lib => 'Calc';
You can change this by using:
- use bignum lib => 'GMP';
The following would first try to find Math::BigInt::Foo, then Math::BigInt::Bar, and when this also fails, revert to Math::BigInt::Calc:
- use bigint lib => 'Foo,Math::BigInt::Bar';
Using lib
warns if none of the specified libraries can be found and
Math::BigInt did fall back to one of the default libraries.
To suppress this warning, use try
instead:
- use bignum try => 'GMP';
If you want the code to die instead of falling back, use only
instead:
- use bignum only => 'GMP';
Please see respective module documentation for further details.
The numbers are stored as objects, and their internals might change at anytime, especially between math operations. The objects also might belong to different classes, like Math::BigInt, or Math::BigInt::Lite. Mixing them together, even with normal scalars is not extraordinary, but normal and expected.
You should not depend on the internal format, all accesses must go through accessor methods. E.g. looking at $x->{sign} is not a good idea since there is no guaranty that the object in question has such a hash key, nor is a hash underneath at all.
The sign is either '+', '-', 'NaN', '+inf' or '-inf'. You can access it with the sign() method.
A sign of 'NaN' is used to represent the result when input arguments are not numbers or as a result of 0/0. '+inf' and '-inf' represent plus respectively minus infinity. You will get '+inf' when dividing a positive number by 0, and '-inf' when dividing any negative number by 0.
Since all numbers are now objects, you can use all functions that are part of the BigInt API. You can only use the bxxx() notation, and not the fxxx() notation, though.
But a warning is in order. When using the following to make a copy of a number, only a shallow copy will be made.
- $x = 9; $y = $x;
- $x = $y = 7;
Using the copy or the original with overloaded math is okay, e.g. the following work:
- $x = 9; $y = $x;
- print $x + 1, " ", $y,"\n"; # prints 10 9
but calling any method that modifies the number directly will result in both the original and the copy being destroyed:
Using methods that do not modify, but test that the contents works:
- $x = 9; $y = $x;
- $z = 9 if $x->is_zero(); # works fine
See the documentation about the copy constructor and =
in overload, as
well as the documentation in BigInt for further details.
A shortcut to return Math::BigInt->binf(). Useful because Perl does not always
handle bareword inf
properly.
A shortcut to return Math::BigInt->bnan(). Useful because Perl does not always
handle bareword NaN
properly.
- # perl -Mbigint=e -wle 'print e'
Returns Euler's number e
, aka exp(1). Note that under bigint, this is
truncated to an integer, and hence simple '2'.
- # perl -Mbigint=PI -wle 'print PI'
Returns PI. Note that under bigint, this is truncated to an integer, and hence simple '3'.
- bexp($power,$accuracy);
Returns Euler's number e
raised to the appropriate power, to
the wanted accuracy.
Note that under bigint, the result is truncated to an integer.
Example:
- # perl -Mbigint=bexp -wle 'print bexp(1,80)'
- bpi($accuracy);
Returns PI to the wanted accuracy. Note that under bigint, this is truncated to an integer, and hence simple '3'.
Example:
- # perl -Mbigint=bpi -wle 'print bpi(80)'
Return the class that numbers are upgraded to, is in fact returning
$Math::BigInt::upgrade
.
Returns true or false if bigint
is in effect in the current scope.
This method only works on Perl v5.9.4 or later.
bigint
works by overloading handling of integer and floating point
literals, converting them to Math::BigInt objects.
This means that arithmetic involving only string values or string literals will be performed using Perl's built-in operators.
For example:
will output 0
on default 32-bit builds, since bigint
never sees
the string literals. To ensure the expression is all treated as
Math::BigInt
objects, use a literal number in the expression:
- print +(0+$x) - $y;
Perl does not allow overloading of ranges, so you can neither safely use ranges with bigint endpoints, nor is the iterator variable a bigint.
This method only works on Perl v5.9.4 or later.
bigint
overrides these routines with versions that can also handle
big integer values. Under Perl prior to version v5.9.4, however, this
will not happen unless you specifically ask for it with the two
import tags "hex" and "oct" - and then it will be global and cannot be
disabled inside a scope with "no bigint":
The second call to hex() will warn about a non-portable constant.
Compare this to:
bigint
is just a thin wrapper around various modules of the Math::BigInt
family. Think of it as the head of the family, who runs the shop, and orders
the others to do the work.
The following modules are currently used by bigint:
Some cool command line examples to impress the Python crowd ;) You might want to compare them to the results under -Mbignum or -Mbigrat:
- perl -Mbigint -le 'print sqrt(33)'
- perl -Mbigint -le 'print 2*255'
- perl -Mbigint -le 'print 4.5+2*255'
- perl -Mbigint -le 'print 3/7 + 5/7 + 8/3'
- perl -Mbigint -le 'print 123->is_odd()'
- perl -Mbigint -le 'print log(2)'
- perl -Mbigint -le 'print 2 ** 0.5'
- perl -Mbigint=a,65 -le 'print 2 ** 0.2'
- perl -Mbignum=a,65,l,GMP -le 'print 7 ** 7777'
For information about bugs and how to report them, see the BUGS section in the documentation available with the perldoc command.
- perldoc bignum
You can find documentation for this module with the perldoc command.
- perldoc bigint
For more information, see the SUPPORT section in the documentation available with the perldoc command.
- perldoc bignum
This program is free software; you may redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.
Math::BigInt, Math::BigFloat, Math::BigRat and Math::Big as well as Math::BigInt::FastCalc, Math::BigInt::Pari and Math::BigInt::GMP.
(C) by Tels http://bloodgate.com/ in early 2002 - 2007.
Maintained by Peter John Acklam <pjacklam@gmail.com<gt>, 2014-.